Most cattle raiding is done by young Orlanth Adventurous initiates during their ordeal period after initiation. They steal cattle – and try to avoid combat and starting feuds. You have these bands at the edge of clan or tribal lands. Think the Indo-European *kóryos.
The tribal militia assembles each Fire Season. This coincides with the tribal assembly. Militia members participate in athletic competitions and mock sparring contests to learn how to fight or to maintain their military training. In the past there might be semi-ritualistic battles with another tribe over control of a sacred place or whatever. Since 1622, the militia was more likely to engage in banditry and rebellion against the Lunar occupiers. Starting 1625, the militia is now expected to follow the Prince into war.
The tribal militia is raised by the clan chieftains of course, and each clan follows their chief – which presents a visible display of the chief’s power and followers at the tribal assembly. But it functions on a tribal level and is led in war by the tribal king (Orlanth Rex).
Low-level cattle raiding likely occurs even within a tribe – but remember what this is: young men and women sneaking into the grazing areas and stealing an unwatched cow. This is like the tradition of stealing high school or university mascots, or stealing the Maibaum from another village. This stuff is likely very ritualised and the chance of real danger quite low.
The more impressive stuff is going to take place across tribal borders. Want to steal the prize bull or a small herd of an other kinship group? That better not be within your own tribal group or there is going to be big trouble with nobody on your side.
The first type of cattle raid is really a ritualised contest between young men. It is probably SAFER when it is done within your own tribal group. It is a nuisance and people complain about it, but the Orlanth cult promotes it anyways.
The second type is the thing that gets reputation, wealth, and potentially starts feuds.
How do they avoid starting feuds with this sort of institution? Is there a sort of balance point, with a certain amount of cattle raids being just part of life? How do young Bavarians or US high school seniors avoid killing each other over the Maibaum or school mascots?