Official Answers from Chaosium
This covers the second part of Chapter 11, pages 256-267
For the Spirit Magic rules section see Chapter 11 Spirit Magic Q&A
See also the Red book of Magic
|Control (entity)||1||50-150 L|
|Detect Enemies||1||30 L|
|Detect Life||1||30 L|
|Detect Magic||1||30 L|
|Detect Spirit||1||30 L|
|Detect (substance)||1||30 L|
|Detect Trap||2||30 L|
|Detect Undead||1||30 L|
|Dispel Magic||Var.||50 L/pt|
|Fireblade||4||400 L||Second printing corrections, superseded by Red Book of Magic.|
|Heal||Var.||50 L/pt||See Red Book of Magic – Chapter 03 Spirit Magic Spells Q&A|
|Lantern||1||30 L||Cult special, Yelmalio only|
|Magic Point Enchantment||1||30 L|
|Second Sight||3||100 L|
|Sleep||3||300 L||Cult special, Chalana Arroy Only|
|Spell Matrix Enchantment||1||30 L|
|Spirit Binding||1||150 L|
|Spirit Screen||Var.||50 L/pt|
|Summon (entity)||1||variable||Updated description|
|Vigor||2||100 L||Second printing corrections|
Befuddle (page 256)
A successfully Befuddled a creature has zero INT. Can it attempt to shake off the Befuddlement? Per the rules on RQG p.257, it appears not (unless the creature knows how to Meditate, which seems frankly unlikely). Defeating a Befuddle spell is usually easier for low-INT victims, but it seems to be impossible for a zero-INT victim. Was this intended?
Rules as written state that you must roll INTx5 for a creature with no INT. There’s always a 05% chance of success, though, and since this is a “roll higher than” effect that means that any roll of 06-00 will let the creature shake off the Befuddlement.
A victim of Befuddle may not attack, cast an offensive spell, sound the alarm, and so on. However, if attacked, they may parry and defend at full value.. […] Thus, with deceit or clever misdirection, a Befuddled opponent might end up attacking their own party for as long as the spell is in effect.Befuddle, pages 256-257
Can one attack while under the effects of Befuddle? Fist entry indicates that no, it’s not possible. Second entry indicates that it is.
The “attacking” in the second instance should be “act against”
Binding Enchantment (page 249)
Rules as written, if I have an empty POW Storing crystal (or an appropriate binding enchantment), can I cast Spirit Binding at any spirit that pops up during an adventure and bind it that round of combat?
There, it explains that you need to have cast Spirit Binding or Command Cult Spirit over the entity to order it to inhabit a suitable object.
If those are met, then you can command the creature into the object. To release and command it, you’d need the spell again.
As a gamemaster, I’d consider the entity’s reaction to being bound. A cult spirit might be thrilled about it, while an unfriendly one would likely flee or fight back to the best of its abilities.
Where do I read of the cult-bred animals in the Spirits chapter?
Delete the section as follows:
Binding spirits into familiars demands the use of special cult-bred animals
described in the Spirits chapter.
Assume that larger temples have an initiate who breeds appropriate animals.
Bladesharp (page 258)
Do Bladesharp and True Sword stack?
Yes. Neither spells’ description forbids it.
Control (entity) page 258
To control animal spirits with the “control (species)” spirit spell, what spirit spell I have to use to control a lion spirit (for example): control (animal spirit), control (large carnivorous mammal spirit) or control (lion spirit)?
Personally, I’d keep it simple, to Control (Animal Spirit) but a more detail-oriented gamemaster may wish to make things more focused with Control (specific type as per list in the RuneQuest Glorantha Bestiary p167-168).
How specific is this spell is when applied to spirits. I’ve already told my shaman player that there can’t be a single Control Spirit which works on everything but I need to know how far he will have to specialise.
Look to the RuneQuest Glorantha Bestiary. You might break it down to Animal Spirits, Demons, Disease Spirits, Healing Spirits, Plant Spirits, Ghosts, Guardian Spirits, Landscape Spirits, Nymphs, etc.
The description implies that there is a separate Control for Elementals. Does this also imply a separate Control Fire Elemental, Control Wind Elemental etc?
Yes. It’s Control Cult Spirit, which is usually specialized by type.
Is a discorporate human spirit a different thing if it’s living or dead? Do Wraiths need their own spell? What about nature spirits?
Yes, a discorporated human is a discorporated human, not technically a spirit. A human’s spiritual being whose “owner” is dead is a ghost or a wraith. Different things. Nature spirits are spirits.
With the spirit magic spell Control (Entity), if the spell can’t be used for binding purposes (as clarified above), how is it used?
You can handle this one of the following ways:
Hard: The targeted entity is reduced to 0 magic points and is otherwise unconscious or incapacitated until it gains at least 1 magic point (natural recovery, POW crystal, etc.). The spell is described as Temporal and Active until the instructions are given, in which case it becomes Passive.
Medium: The entity acts unnaturally: despite being at 0 magic points it continues to move and act (basically sleepwalking), but cannot perform any actions requiring magic points until it has recovered some.
Easy: Stack the Control spell with 1+ additional magic points. After being defeated in spirit combat, the caster “gives” those magic points to the creature with which to act.
Countermagic (page 258-259)
Countermagic & Sorcery
How do you calculate the intensity of a Sorcery spell for the purposes of countermagic? As far as I can figure, the total intensity is 1 + the levels of intensity purchased, is that right?
Countermagic & Shield rune spell
Does the order of casting of Countermagic and Shield matter?
If I cast Countermagic 1 then Shield 2, does the Countermagic get taken down by the shield? If I cast Countermagic 3 then Shield 2, would the Shield 2 be blocked?
Do I need to cast them in the other order, with the Countermagic powerful enough to get past the Shield? e.g., if I cast Shield 1, do I need to cast Countermagic 4 in order to get them to stack (as a spell lower than 4 points would normally be countered by the Shield’s Countermagic 2)?
Or, do Countermagic and Shield always stack regardless of the order and power of the spells?
I think I covered this in Basic Roleplaying, but generally, a rule of thumb would be to start with the defender’s body as being the closest/last line of defense, and then work outward.
So then from an outside attack, these would be in reverse order, with the attack hitting Countermagic first, then Shield, then Protection.
If I want to dispel a Rune spell that has a Countermagic component (e.g. Shield or Suppress Lodril), does the Countermagic effect prevent the Dispel/Dismiss from manifesting at the target, or can it be targeted directly ignoring the Countermagic effect, without those extra one or two MP for boosting it through the Countermagic?
As I read the rules, when a rune spell with a Countermagic effect is stacked with the spirit spell Countermagic, the spell needs to be boosted to 2 points above the combined Countermagic effect, whereas when only rune spells with a CM effect are stacked, it is enough to add 1 MP more than the combined Countermagic effect for a spell to activate. Is that a) correct and b) intended?
In that case, a single point of Countermagic would block 2 points of incoming Spirit Magic or 1 point of incoming Rune Magic (and be dissipated in the process).
The description of the Spirit Magic spell Countermagic states (p.259) that you need 2 points of Countermagic to block 1 point of Rune Magic, but that doesn’t conform with the calculation above. Is this deviation from the calculation intended?
My inclination is that a spell with a Countermagic effect does indeed block Dismiss, so you’ll need to spend the additional magic points to overcome it.
This is seriously verging on “we’re gonna be here all day talking about it, making diagrams with straws” territory. 🤪Jason Durall, RuneQuest Line Editor
Demoralize (page 259)
Can a discorporate shaman cast demoralize on incoming hostile spirits? Does demoralize only work on beings with INT?
Yes, if the spirit has INT. Otherwise no.
Detect Spells (page 259-260)
How do they work?
Does Countermagic protect (like it says in the Countermagic description), and if it does, does it protect against being detected? If it protects against having the spell cast on you, why do Detect spells all talk about letting the caster know stuff about what they’re detecting (as if they’re self-only, and the Range is the range at which they can detect things)? Does Detect knock down Countermagic?
Countermagic has no effect on Detect spells.
If you cast Detect Gold, you are aware of the gold armor Rurik Runespear is wearing – even if he has Shield 4 cast! (answer by Jeff Richard).
Detect spells & Countermagic
Can someone can blow down Countermagic on several people by casting an appropriate Detect spell boosted by lots of magic points?
For example, lets say a group is walking into a a good ambush site an, wary of such, someone casts Detect Enemies, and boosts it by 7 MPs, getting the spell up to 8 MPs. Now, will that Detect spell blow down Countermagic spells of 6 points or less on any and all enemies within the range of the spell?
Detect does not affect or interact with Countermagic.
To keep it straight, Countermagic specifically prevents spells from affecting the target they’re cast upon, while Detect spells do not affect the target.
Dispel Magic (page 260)
I am facing an enemy, and I suspect that she has magic cast on her – Fanaticism, Shield, Strength, whatever.
I cast Dispel Magic at her, to take down some of her advantages.
Does she get a resistance roll to the Dispel Magic, before it encounters her protective spells? Bear in mind that normally, resistance rolls happen AFTER a spell gets past defensive magic, not before.
Please re-read the description of Dispel Magic on page 260, and the section Dispel, Dismiss, and Neutralize Magic also on 260.
The defensive spells are hit first, then the personal resistance roll.
What if I cast Dispel Magic on her sword to remove a Fireblade or Bladesharp – do I have to overcome her MP?
- Use POW not Magic Points.
- If the spell is active (Fireblade) – Yes.
- If the spell is passive (Bladesharp), – No unless the weapon contains a spirit, – that has POW – yes (Use the spirit’s POW).
Dispel Magic & Sorcery Intensity
How do you calculate the intensity of a Sorcery spell for the purposes of countermagic / dispel? As far as I can figure, the total intensity is 1 + the levels of intensity purchased, is that right?
Can a powerful Dispel Magic remove multiple spells at once?
Yes. But it must completely overcome each of them.
One cannot Dispel only part of a spell.Dispel Magic, page 260
A Dispel Magic 4 against Protection 3 and Shield 1, would only knock out the Protection 3.
Do you have to roll POW vs POW in order for Dispelling magics to work in the first place? Or is this only if you target an object/person, instead of targeting a specific spell?
Dispel Magic does not require any POW vs. POW resistance roll. It just works if it has enough magic points.
Disruption (page 260)
The description for the Disruption states that success strikes a random hit location on the target.
The Rune Fixes II document on page 2 states that Aimed Blows cannot be made with spells.
Does this absolutely positively rule out any prospect of aiming a disruption spell?
Yes, but as a GM you may overrule this for the purposes of MGF, furthering the story or just because you can.
or indeed any spell, at a specifically targeted hit location?
No. We don’t know what the future holds. New supplements could for example detail a new spells like “Glue Fingers”, “Seal lips”, Stomach Ache, etc. However it’s unlikely that combat spells would alter the no Aimed Blows rule.
Distraction (page 260)
Spirit spell Distraction says you can “taunt” a Spirit while it’s in spirit combat to force it to attack the caster.
The printing I’m working from doesn’t use the word “taunt”.
Does the spirit actually have to be in spirit combat, or can you force a Spirit to attack you while it’s not in combat?
No. It distracts an attacking spirit to change targets.
Farsee (page 261)
Does the Farsee spell make any difference to anything within the game system, or only the the value the GM assigns it ad hoc in a particular situation? Skills have no range penalties, and the spell description implies that Farsee makes no difference to missile or thrown weapon range or accuracy at range.
It has no mechanic-specific effect on a case-by-case basis, but the gamemaster might interpret that as being able to use Perception-based skills like Insight, Scan, Search, or even Track at twice their ‘normal’ distance.
“Each point of this spell halves the apparent distance as seen by the caster to the rest of the universe”. It is also listed as a Ranged spell. Can Farsee be cast on someone else by the caster, or is it a spell that only works on the caster (and if the latter is the case, why is it a ranged spell then, and not a self spell?)
One of those weird nomenclature issues. It can be cast on others (that should be clarified) and has a long-range effect.
Firearrow (page 261)
The damage bonus still applies, halved for missile weapons as normal.Firearrow (page 261)
The damage bonus still applies, halved for thrown weapons as normal.
Does Firearrow deal any additional special/critical damage?
No. Such is the unpredictability of magic.
On a pragmatic sense, for a critical, rolling 3D6 (plus damage bonus) and ignoring armor is more-than-likely to disable whatever hit location it strikes.
The gamemaster is wholly within their rights to decide that these results do in fact do special damage (impaling or slashing) but may soon discover that these spells become dominant tactics.
Fireblade (page 262)
Lantern (page 263)
The description says (Ranged, Temporal, Passive):
“This focused, passive spell…” => is focused in the sentence just a figure of speech and not related to Focused quality?
“focused” is used in the general sense, in that the spell is cast on a specific area.
Multimissile (page 263)
“The magical missile does the same damage as the original missile”.
Does this include the damage bonus for thrown weapons?
Parry (page 263)
Why doesn’t the spirit spell Parry doesn’t increase the armor of the shield/weapon… I mean if Bladesharp and all the others increase damage on top of the percentage, why not Parry? Seems a bit weak in comparison.
We didn’t see the need to change the spell. Given that we’ve conflated attack and parry chances, it seemed to be overmuch to add additional hit points to a weapon.
Weapons breaking or being damaged is a core feature of RQ combat, so anything that moves away from that is not particularly desirable.
Shimmer (page 264)
Does Shimmer spirits spell works in spirit combat? And if yes how does it works?
No, “This spell blurs and distorts the target’s visual image”, not spirit image. Your GM may rule otherwise.
Silence (page 264)
Does the Silence spell have to be used with the Move Quietly skill or does it have other applications (such as suppressing the noise of a person or horse when they are moving without attempting a Move Quietly roll)?
When used with Move Quietly does it only remove the penalty for noisy armour or does it have other effects (such as changing a fail to a success)?
The spell suppresses normal movement sounds, unless they are deliberately (or disastrously) made.
The sounds generated while walking around in your armor (bronze chain rustling against bronze plates, sword scabbard rubbing against your hip, leather squeaking, sandals slapping on the ground, breathing, etc.) will be suppressed, as will the clop-clop of your horse’s hooves.
So no, you don’t have to make a Move Quietly roll, but if you want to do anything specific that isn’t naturalistic movement, you should take that precaution.
It doesn’t shift a success… it’s a binary thing. It covers some things, but not others. If you engage in combat while under the spell’s effect, the onlookers would see you, hear your combat sounds, but would not hear your normal movement sounds (except in the case of a fumble).
Sleep (page 264)
Chalana Arroy’s special spirit magic of Sleep may not be taught to outsiders under any circumstances. Befuddle was once a cult special spell as well, but knowledge of it was shared in the First Age, which led to its use to attack, perverting its merciful purpose. That mistake has not been repeated.Gods of Glorantha, unpublished
Slow (page 264)
Is there any resistance role for the spell Slow or is it always successful?
Resistance roll, as it directly affects another living being independent of something the adventurer is doing.
For example, Bladesharp doesn’t require a resistance roll as it’s just adding to the efficacy of an attack already being made. Slow is affecting another being usually in defiance of their preference. If someone were to cast Mobility on an unwilling subject, that should probably call for a resistance roll too.
Spirit Binding (page 265)
Binding spirits into familiars demands the use of special cult-bred animals described in the Spirits chapter.Spirit Binding page 265
I couldn’t find any information about ‘special cult-bred animals’ in the Spirits chapter.
This refers to the practice for cults to have animals sacred to that god kept and bred within the temple grounds. Ernalda temples are likely full of snakes, Orlanthi temples might keep a sacred cattle pen, Eiritha cows, Engizi a pool of fish, Issaries maybe birds, etc.
Eurmal would have a bunch of raccoons who run around loose and get into other temples, because they’re like that.
The term ‘familiar’ appears in the text of this spell and nowhere else in the book. Is a familiar the same thing as a spirit bound animal as described on page 250, or something else?
Yes, a familiar is a bound spirit animal. You can use the following as a guide in the Bestiary:
- Bestiary Vrok Hawk page 161, use as a base for other birds.
- Bestiary Dog page 144, use as a base for other breeds of dog.
- Bestiary shadowcat page 159
- For monkeys just make a smaller Baboon, etc.
The spirit spell Spirit Binding requires only a POW vs POW roll to put a spirit into a binding enchantment, while Control Spirit requires the caster to have won a spirit combat to bind the spirit… Making Spirit Binding much better for this purpose. Is this as intended?
Yes. It’s about the intent:
Spirit Binding allows a spirit to be placed in a binding.
Control (entity) cannot be used to place a spirit in a binding.
Rules as written, if I have an empty POW Storing crystal (or an appropriate binding enchantment), can I cast Spirit Binding at any spirit that pops up during an adventure and bind it that round of combat?
Combat is not the best place to do this, you are unlikely to have enough SRs.
Empty POW storage crystals – you can use them immediately with no preparation, they are naturally magical.
Items – As long as you have prepared the item as described in the Enchantment section on page 249, inscribed the Runes of the enchantment on, in, or around the thing to be enchanted, spent the POW and your GM agrees that it’s possible to do this without an actual spirit present, then yes. I’d certainly allow shamans and their assistants to do this, but not anyone else. Anyone else has to do the Enchantment with a spirit present. If a shaman or assistant, I’d have the POW they’d spent held ready (and thus no longer available to use) until the moment of the casting, then roll. If they fail the POW is restored, if not the spirit is bound.
Players in my game always do ritual preparation to get the casting chance to 100% (so a player with 15 POW would have a 65% chance normally, but would always do at least an hour to get the +35% bonus). The GM is the adjudicator of failed rolls and remember if allowed are at -25% (Game System page 142). Rituals are never quick. Quote
Reviewing the spell description, it doesn’t look like any other procedures are required (defeating it in spirit combat, it isn’t a ritual spell, etc.). Am I correct in that understanding?
other than the preparation and obtaining a spirit, no. this part is a ritual:
Magical objects for holding spirits can be made using the Binding Enchantment ritual (page 249)
Strength (page 255)
Touch, Temporal, Passive
This spell adds 8 points of STR to the target for the spell’s duration. This increases melee combat damage by one step on the Damage Bonus table on page 56 (e.g., from +1D4 to +1D6), increases all Agility and Manipulation skills (including weapon skills) as follows:
It also enables the target to lift or carry heavier weights. Strength is incompatible with Vigor.
Strength page 265
|Strength Table||Page 255|
|STR Prior to Spell||Agility and Manipulation Skills Increase|
Damage BonusDamage Bonus page 56
The modifier for damage an adventurer inflicts when physically striking or applying force is known as their damage bonus. This is an extra die roll, which is either added to, or subtracted from, the damage inflicted by a weapon or natural attack such as claw, bite, kick, etc. If a negative damage bonus takes a weapon’s damage to 0 or below, no damage has been inflicted. Add your adventurer’s STR and SIZ together and consult the Damage Bonus table:
|Damage Bonus Table||Page 56|
|Damage Bonus||STR+SIZ Damage Bonus|
|12 or less||–1D4|
|Each +16 points Additional||Additional +1D6|
By the chart after 41 STR+SIZ, easily possible for a lucky starting Bison Rider, an 8 point bonus to STR does not raise an adventurer to the next damage bonus. Does the Spell just do this by default? Does it do it in addition to increasibg STR by 8? Would a Bison Rider with 21 SIZ and 20 STR be able to get to a 3d6 damage bonus or is the spell just wasted?
The spell, along with the other characteristic-boosting spells, had two frustrating limitations:
- Players had to refigure the relevant skill category modifiers and/or damage bonus to figure out what effect the spell had, which slows gameplay and introduces a potential for errors in calculation.
- It was possible to get no appreciable bonus (or only a very minor one) when going through all that paperwork.
To address this, we decided to make it easier and quicker to simply have the skills and damage bonus bump up by a predefined amount.
I’m not sure that rolling two 18s for STR and SIZ (total 36), modified by homeland (+2, for 38 total), plus Elemental Rune affinities (Air and the other would have to be Darkness… a weird combo for a Bison Rider, giving +3 more for a total of 41), qualifies as “easily possible”, but you might have better dice than I do.
For someone with STR+SIZ of 42 or higher, then yes, it would bump them up one damage bonus rank (to +3D6) but would only functionally increase STR by +8 for the purpose of resistance rolls, etc.
Summon (entity) (page 265)
I’m unclear how Summon (Entity) works
To cast this spell, the caster must inform the gamemaster of the Summon (entity) spell being used. Shamans and adventurers normally summon only spirit entities. The summoner states how many magic points they are using, and the summoner cannot use more magic points than are available. If the number of magic points used is less than the magic points possessed by the specific entity being summoned (as generated by the gamemaster), then the ritual automatically fails. The magic points powering the Summon spell are expended whether it succeeds or not.Summon (entity), page 265
To cast this spell, the caster must inform the gamemaster of the Summon (entity) spell being used. Shamans and adventurers normally summon only spirit entities. The summoner states how many magic points they are using, including the 1 magic point cost and cannot use more magic points than are available. The ritual requires one hour per magic point spent in attempting the summons. If the number of magic points used is less than the magic points possessed by the specific entity being summoned (as generated by the gamemaster), then the ritual automatically fails. The magic points powering the Summon spell are expended whether it succeeds or not.
Summon (spirit) is listed as a variable spell. Does this mean that a summoner needs to learn it to, say, level 15 to be able to use 15 mp on it to summon a spirit with 15 mp?
Or, is it really a 1 point spell, and you just boost it to whatever amount of mp you think the spirit in question has?
The latter. You spend 1 pt and boost the amount by the number of magic points for the desired spirit. See corrections above.
What does “Stackable” mean for Summon (Entity) spirit magic? What happens if I cast a two-point version instead of a one-point?
Summon (Entity) spirit magic spell description on page 265-266 do not mention “Stackable” anywhere in its qualities.
How does Summon (Entity) work?
When the spell is learned or picked, the subject “(Entity)” must be specified.
Tell the gamemaster how many magic points will be spent.
Perform the ritual.
If the magic points are lower than the entity’s magic points, the ritual fails.
If the points are equal to or more than the entity’s, the ritual succeeds and they appear.
Vigor (page 267)
First sentence changed to “This spell adds 3 points to the CON of the target.” (Part of Second printing corrections).
For the Spirit Magic rules section see Chapter 11 Spirit Magic Q&A
- CHA4028 RuneQuest: Roleplaying in Glorantha – Chapter 01 Introduction Q&A
- CHA4028 RuneQuest: Roleplaying in Glorantha – Chapter 02 Glorantha Q&A
- CHA4028 RuneQuest: Roleplaying in Glorantha – Chapter 03 Adventurers Q&A
- CHA4028 RuneQuest: Roleplaying in Glorantha – Chapter 03 Pregenerated Adventurers Q&A
- CHA4028 RuneQuest: Roleplaying in Glorantha – Chapter 04 Homelands Q&A
- CHA4028 RuneQuest: Roleplaying in Glorantha – Chapter 05 Game System Q&A
- CHA4028 RuneQuest: Roleplaying in Glorantha – Chapter 06 Skills Q&A
- CHA4028 RuneQuest: Roleplaying in Glorantha – Chapter 07 Combat Q&A pages 191-206
- CHA4028 RuneQuest: Roleplaying in Glorantha – Chapter 07 Combat Q&A pages 206-225
- CHA4028 RuneQuest: Roleplaying in Glorantha – Chapter 08 Runes Q&A
- CHA4028 RuneQuest: Roleplaying in Glorantha – Chapter 09 Passions & Reputation Q&A
- CHA4028 RuneQuest: Roleplaying in Glorantha – Chapter 10 Magic Q&A
- CHA4028 RuneQuest: Roleplaying in Glorantha – Chapter 11 Spirit Magic Q&A
- CHA4028 RuneQuest: Roleplaying in Glorantha – Chapter 12 Rune Cults Q&A
- CHA4028 RuneQuest: Roleplaying in Glorantha – Chapter 12 Rune Cults The Cults Q&A
- CHA4028 RuneQuest: Roleplaying in Glorantha – Chapter 13 Rune Magic Q&A
- CHA4028 RuneQuest: Roleplaying in Glorantha – Chapter 13 Rune Magic Spells Q&A
- CHA4028 RuneQuest: Roleplaying in Glorantha – Chapter 14 Shamans Q&A
- CHA4028 RuneQuest: Roleplaying in Glorantha – Chapter 15 Spirits & the Spirit World Q&A
- CHA4028 RuneQuest: Roleplaying in Glorantha – Chapter 16 Sorcery Q&A
- CHA4028 RuneQuest: Roleplaying in Glorantha – Chapter 16 Sorcery Spells Q&A
- CHA4028 RuneQuest: Roleplaying in Glorantha – Chapter 17 Equipment & Wealth Q&A
- CHA4028 RuneQuest: Roleplaying in Glorantha – Chapter 18 Between Adventures Q&A
- CHA4028 RuneQuest: Roleplaying in Glorantha – Chapter 19 Adventurer Sheets Q&A
- CHA4028 RuneQuest: Roleplaying in Glorantha – Chapter 20 Conversion Guide